Very quickly, you must immediately leave to conquer them, immediately, Mr. President. The nonviolent revolution led to the departure of Ferdinand Marcos, the end of his 20-year presidential term and the restâ¦ At midnight PHT, the Marcos family boarded a United States Air Force HH-3E Rescue helicopter and flew to Clark Air Base in Angeles 83 kilometers north of Manila. Aguinaldo died of a heart attack on February 6, 1964, in Quezon City, Philippines. Despite Aguinaldo's denunciation, some of the revolutionaries continued their armed revolt against the Spanish colonial government. The Philippine Revolution lasted from 1896 to 1898 and diminished Spanish influence in the Philippines, but did not fully eliminate outside influence from the islands. Emilio Aguinaldo, Filipino independence leader who fought against Spain and the United States. President Marcos' second term for the presidency was marred by allegations by the opposition Liberal Party of widespread graft and corruption. At about 6:30 p.m. on February 22, Enrile and Ramos held a press conference at the Ministry of National Defense building in Camp Aguinaldo, where they announced that they had resigned from their positions in Marcos' cabinet and were withdrawing support from his government. They involved over two million Filipino civilians, as well as several political and military groups, and religious groups led by Cardinal Jaime Sin, the Archbishop of Manila, along with Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines President Cardinal Ricardo Vidal, the Archbishop of Cebu. , The deposed First Family and their servants then rode US Air Force DC-9 Medivac and C-141B planes to Andersen Air Force Base in the north of the United States territory of Guam, then flying to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos finally arrived on February 26. However, NAMFREL countered that the latter won over Marcos with 52 percent of votes. Â Â Â Â Â Â The revolutionary society, Katipunan, was established, on July 7, 1892, by Filipinos who had given up hope that the Spanish government would administer the affairs of Filipinas in the interests of its subjects — with justice and dignity.Â A secret association patterned after Freemasonry and the Liga Filipina (a mutual-aid society founded by the ilustrado Jose Riza on July 3, 1892), it recruited members in the suburbs of Manila and in the provinces of Central Luzon.Â By the time of the outbreak of the Revolution in August 1896, membership in the Katipunan has soared to about 30,000, which included some women.Â The Revolution broke out prematurely on August 23, 1896 because ofthe untimely discovery by a Spanish friar, on August 19, of the existence of the revolutionary society.Â The immediate result ofthe outbreak of the Revolution was the institution of a reign of terror by the Spanish authorities in an attempt to frighten the population into submission. The rebel leaders departed, and the Philippine Revolution temporarily was at an end. The jubilation was however short-lived as Marcos later appeared on television on the government-controlled MBS-4, (using the foreclosed ABS-CBN facilities, transmitter, and compound in Broadcast Plaza) declaring that he would not step down. All LABAN candidates lost, including Ninoy himself.  It also shook the Marcos Administration, which was by then deteriorating due in part to Marcos' worsening health and ultimately fatal illness (lupus erythematosus). When Philippine independence was declared in 1898, Aguinaldo became president, but within months Spain signed a treaty ceding the islands to the U.S. Aguinaldo fought U.S. forces until he was captured in 1901. Makes no economic sense", "Aquino, Corazon Cojuangco • The Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation • Honoring greatness of spirit and transformative leadership in Asia", "Will Noynoy Aquino be the hero of Muslims in Mindanao? Andrés Bonifacio (November 30, 1863âMay 10, 1897) was a leader of the Philippine Revolution and the president of the Tagalog Republic, a short-lived government in the Philippines.Through his work, Bonifacio helped the Philippines break free from Spanish colonial rule.His story is still remembered in the Philippines today. Ninoy, therefore, acquired a plan to acquire a fake passport with the help of Rashid Lucman, The passport carried the alias Marcial Bonifacio (Marcial for martial law and Bonifacio for Fort Bonifacio, his erstwhile prison). Â Â Â Â Â Â Recent historiography on the Philippine Revolution, looking from a perspective of history “from below” sees a religious dimension in the Katipunan revolutionary movement and a continuity to the many illicit gatherings and proscribed groups that operated against the colonial state in some towns and in the hinterland of Luzon and the Visayas towards the latter half of the nineteenth century. Guerrero. Philippines, island country of Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. , By this time, hundreds of people had amassed at the barricades along Mendiola, only a hundred meters away from Malacañang. MBS-4 was put back on the air shortly after noon, with Orly Punzalan announcing on live television, "Channel 4 is on the air again to serve the people." In the afternoon, Marcos talked to Minister Enrile, asking for safe passage for him, his family, and close allies such as General Ver. If it is true I shall be enslaved by you No!  Tadiar asked the crowds to make a clearing for them, but they did not budge. Over at Mendiola, the demonstrators stormed the Palace, which was closed to ordinary people for around a decade. ", Some authors say that Marcos prevented civil war similar to the Syrian Civil War by refusing to use guns notwithstanding the insistence of his top general, and by agreeing to step down during the EDSA revolution. The Philippines had been governed from Mexico since 1565, with colonial administrative costs sustained by subsidies from the galleon trade. , In 1972 the Moro National Liberation Front, a militant Muslim separatist group, formed in the southern island of Mindanao.. It is an archipelago consisting of some 7,100 islands and islets lying about 500 miles (800 km) off the coast of Vietnam. American Mutoscope & Biograph Co. March 23, 1900. In a Cold War context, Marcos retained the support of the United States through Marcos' promise to stamp out communism in the Philippines and by assuring the United States of its continued use of military and naval bases in the Philippines.  Nuns holding rosaries knelt in front of the tanks and men and women linked arms together to block the troops. Permission to post this text on the Austrian-Philippine Website is provisionally granted by the estate of Leon Ma. The truce failed as both sides entered the agreement in bad faith — neither was really willing to abandon hostilities but were biding time and resources to resume the armed conflict. The walkout was considered as one of the early "sparks" of the People Power Revolution.  On November 25, 1977, the Military Commission charged Aquino along with his two co-accused, NPA leaders Bernabe Buscayno (Commander Dante) and Lt. Victor Corpuz, guilty of all charges and sentenced them to death by firing squad..  The Philippine economy began going into decline in 1981, continuing to do so by the time the Benigno Aquino Jr. assassination in 1983. Many similar revolutions have followed since then, taking the Philippine example of nonviolent regime change, such as that in East Germany and many other former Soviet Bloc countries. , The assassination of Ninoy Aquino caused the Philippines economy to deteriorate even further, and the government plunged further into debt. Philippine Revolution (1896â98), Filipino independence struggle that exposed the weakness of Spanish colonial rule but failed to evict Spain from the islands. In 1984, Marcos appointed a commission, led by Chief Justice Enrique Fernando, to launch an investigation into Aquino's assassination. The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution, the Philippine Revolution of 1986, EDSA 1986, EDSA I (pronounced as EDSA One or EDSA Uno) and EDSA People Power) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in Metro Manila, from February 22–25, 1986. The Philippine Revolution (called the Tagalog War by the Spanish),  (Filipino:Himagsikang Pilipino) was an armed military conflict between the people of the Philippines and Spanish colonial authorities.. Â Â Â Â Â Â The Philippine Revolution, the first against western colonial rule in Asia, was directed against Spain which had colonized the Philippines since 1565.Â The Revolution against Spain had two phases: the first from the declaration of defiance against Spanish rule on August 23, 1896 till the conclusion of a truce in December 1897; the second from the return till the outbreak of the Filipino-American War in February 1899. Before his departure, Aguinaldo denounced the Philippine Revolution, exhorted Filipino rebel combatants to disarm, and declared those who continued hostilities and waging war to be bandits. The new constitution went into effect in early 1973, changing the form of government from presidential to parliamentary and allowing President Marcos to stay in power beyond 1973. , In other countries, people also rejoiced and congratulated Filipinos they knew. Hundreds suspected of joining the Katipunan and the Revolution were arrested and jailed; prominent Filipinos were shipped to exile to the Carolines or the Spanish penal colony in Africa (Fernando Po); and still others were executed, including Jose Rizal, who was shot by musketry on December 30, 1896. The walkout also served as an affirmation to allegations of vote-buying, fraud, and tampering of election results by the KBL. , The majority of the demonstrations took place on a long stretch of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, more commonly known by its acronym EDSA, in Metro Manila from February 22–25, 1986. On the morning of Tuesday, February 25, at around 7 a.m., a minor clash occurred between loyal government troops and the reformists.  The White House said, "By leaving the Philippines at a critical juncture in his nation's history, Mr. Marcos permitted the peaceful transition to popular, democratic rule. Well, tonight they are teaching the world. Ver: We cannot withdraw all the time... Marcos: No! According to leftists who rioted during the First Quarter Storm, the increasing disparity of wealth between the very wealthy and the very poor that made up the majority of the Philippines' population led to a rise in crime and civil unrest around the country. Through this decree and after obtaining voters consent through the plebiscite, President Marcos seized emergency powers giving him full control of the Philippines' military and the authority to suppress and abolish the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, and many other civil liberties. The station switched to a 10-kilowatt standby transmitter with a limited range of broadcast. 883 (National Law No. 1602: Chinese Revolt. ", "Lakas Ng Bayan: The People's Power/EDSA Revolution 1986", "Election developments in the Philippines – President Reagan's statement – transcript", "iReport EDSA 20th Anniversary Special Issue | Dr. William Castro", "1986 Comelec walkout not about Cory or Marcos", "In Crucial Call, Laxalt Told Marcos: 'Cut Cleanly, "Day One (EDSA: The Original People Power Revolution by Angela Stuart-Santiago)", "REAGAN AND THE PHILIPPINES: Setting Marcos Adrift", "Level up on Duterte or drop into the scourge of the Syrian civil war", "Why the Reds hate Marcos - Manila Standard", "Ferdinand Marcos, Ousted Leader of Philippines, Dies at 72 in Exile", "People Power at 25: Long road to Philippine democracy", "Exporting "People Power"? The Philippine Revolution . , After Cardinal Vidal's condemnation of the snap election's fraudulent result, a message was aired over Radio Veritas at around 9 p.m., Cardinal Sin exhorted Filipinos in the capital to aid rebel leaders by going to the section of EDSA between Camp Crame and Aguinaldo and giving emotional support, food and other supplies. , Because the Marcos administration's spending had relied so heavily on debt since Marcos' first term in the 60s, the Philippines was left vulnerable when the US economy went into recession in the third quarter of 1981, forcing the Reagan administration to increase interest rates. , At dawn on Monday, February 24, the first serious encounter with government troops occurred. Asked what he thought of the death threats, Ninoy Aquino responded, "The Filipino is worth dying for. So must its correction be. (Marcos, Marcos, still Marcos!)". The Revolution began in 1896 and really ended only in 1901. The Revolution spread from Manila and Cavite to Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija represented as the eight rays in the Philippine flag. Â Â Â Â Â Â The first phase of the Revolution ended inconclusively, with both Filipino and Spanish forces unable to pursue hostilities to a successful conclusion. This broadcast was considered the "return" of ABS-CBN on air because this was the time when former employees of the network were inside the complex after 14 years of closure since Marcos took it over during the Martial Law of 1972. Â Â Â Â Â Â The seeds of revolution were, in fact, sown earlier in the nineteenth century when Spain’s enforced isolation of the Philippines was shattered with the opening of the country to foreign commerce and the resulting development of an export economy by non-Spanish foreign enterprises (British, American, Chinese).Â Revolutionary and liberal movements in Europe and elsewhere, in addition to the persistence of friar autocratic rule, brought winds of change in the political climate in the Philippines.Â The most important event which possibly made the Revolution inevitable was that of February 17, 1872, when three Filipino secular priests, leaders in the movement for the secularization (in effect, nationalization) of Philippine parishes, were executed publicly by garrote for their supposed complicity in a military mutiny at a Cavite arsenal on January 20, 1872.Â By linking them with the mutiny, the Spanish administration, with the instigation of Spanish friars, found a convenient way of doing away with the troublesome priests, considered by them as filibusteros (anyone who showed any radical tendencies) for demanding clerical equality with the Spanish friars. By the end of 1983, the Philippines was in an economic recession, with the economy contracting by 6.8%.. There was a sustained campaign of civil resistance against regime violence and electoral fraud. Marcos and his government claimed that they "built more roads than all his predecessors combined and more schools than any previous administration". Still, people came to EDSA until it swelled to hundreds of thousands of unarmed civilians.  Several groups sang Bayan Ko (My Homeland), which, since 1980, had become a patriotic anthem of the opposition. , The EDSA Revolution Anniversary is a special public holiday in the Philippines. , The election was held on February 7, 1986.  The snap election was legalized with the passage of Batas Pambansa Blg. The People Power Revolution (also known as the EDSA Revolution, the Philippine Revolution of 1986, EDSA 1986, EDSA I (pronounced as EDSA One or EDSA Uno) and EDSA People Power) was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines, mostly in Metro Manila, from February 22â25, 1986. President Marcos also dissolved the Philippine Congress and shut down media establishments critical of the Marcos Administration. You asked me to withdraw yesterday– Prior dialogues to stop the revolution had not succeeded with the Armed Forces of the Philippines, which was led by General Fabian Ver. Aguinaldo agreed to go on temporary exile to Hong Kong after the Spanish government compensated him and his revolutionary junta with P400,000. [failed verification][failed verification]. They were prevented from storming the Palace by loyal government troops securing the area. In a period of heavy struggle and conflict, Filipinos of different backgrounds united with a common goal: to resist colonialism.  In the afternoon, Aquino arrived at the base where Enrile, Ramos, RAM officers and a throng were waiting. The Philippine Revolution began in August 1896, upon the discovery of the anti-colonial secret organization Katipunan by the Spanish authorities. , During this broadcast, MBS-4 suddenly went off the air.  Amidst charges from the opposition party of vote-buying and a fraudulent election, President Marcos was reelected in the 1969 Philippine presidential election, this time defeating Sergio Osmeña, Jr. by 61 to 39 percent. Early Life  It also helped inspire the Arab Spring in 2011. In the late afternoon, rebel helicopters attacked Villamor Airbase, destroying presidential air assets. 1621-1622: Bancao Revolt. , In the mid-afternoon, Radio Veritas relayed reports of Marines massing near the camps in the east and LVT-5 tanks approaching from the north and south. Although an end to the insurrection was declared in 1902, â¦ "Radyo Bandido" ended broadcasting that afternoon, while Radio Veritas resumed transmissions, this time from the Broadcast Plaza's radio studios. But as in the election itself, that depends fully on the people; on what they are willing and ready to do.". , The growing opposition movement encouraged Ninoy Aquino's widow, Corazon Aquino, to run for the presidency. 3, a provisional constitution which established a revolutionary government. 1621-1622: Tamblot Revolt. A contingent of rebels, under Colonel Mariano Santiago, had captured the station. 'laban' is the Filipino word for 'fight', but also the abbreviation of Lakas ng Bayan, Ninoy Aquino's party. 883) by the Marcos-controlled unicameral congress called the Regular Batasang Pambansa. June Keithley, with her husband Angelo Castro, Jr., was the radio broadcaster who continued Radio Veritas' program throughout the night and in the remaining days. ", At that time, Ninoy's passport had expired and the renewal had been denied. Among those arrested were Senate President Jovito Salonga, Senator Jose Diokno, and Senator Benigno Aquino Jr., whom Marcos linked with the Communists and the man who was groomed by the opposition to succeed President Marcos after the 1973 elections. The economic and political instability combined to produce the worst recession in Philippine history in 1984 and 1985, with the economy contracting by 7.3% for two successive years. Barred from running for a third term as president in 1973, Marcos announced Proclamation No. The United States Government documented that they entered the United States with millions of dollars in jewelry, gold, stocks, and cash. THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION . For many, this seemed an unwise decision since civilians would not stand a chance against a dispersal by government troops. The Americans hoped to use Aguinaldo against the Spanish in the Philippines, so they brought him back from his exile on May 19, 1898. , The People Power Revolution has inspired a call for a change of government through peaceful protests rather than bloodshed. The Philippine Revolution 1898 1. Former University of the Philippines president Francisco Nemenzo stated that: "Without Radio Veritas, it would have been difficult, if not impossible, to mobilize millions of people in a matter of hours." 1601: Igorot Revolt. The main influx of revolutionary ideas came at the start of the 19th century, when the Philippines was opened for world trade. Mercado, Paul Sagmayao, and Tatad, Francisco S. This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 05:24. However, after Marcos learned about the plot, he ordered their leaders' arrest, and presented to the international and local press some of the captured plotters, Maj. Saulito Aromin and Maj. Edgardo Doromal.. 295: Declaring 2012 National Holidays, "Radio Broadcast of the Philippine People Power Revolution | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization", Japanese Official Development Assistance scandal, Presidential Commission on Good Government, The Conjugal Dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos and Imelda Marcos, Subversive Lives: A Family Memoir of the Marcos Years, 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, North Yemen-South Yemen Border conflict of 1972, Struggle against political abuse of psychiatry in the Soviet Union, Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, List of Eastern Bloc agents in the United States, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, Local government and administrative codes, Presidential elections in the Philippines, National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=People_Power_Revolution&oldid=993735144, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with failed verification from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mendoza, Amado, '"People Power" in the Philippines, 1983–86', in. People frequently flashed the 'LABAN' sign, which is an "L" formed with their thumb and index finger. Ver: Please, Your Honor, so we can immediately strike them. Rizal was the most prominent member of the Propaganda Movement, a movement led by writers of Filipino descent in Europe who used literature to criticize their society. As a result, the crony banks, corporations, and media were hit hard, and their shares in the stock market plummeted to record levels. The revolt included a plot to storm Intramuros. On the other hand, based on returns of 70% of the precincts of the National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL), an accredited poll watcher, had Aquino winning with 7,835,070 votes against Marcos' 7,053,068 votes. The Philippine Revolution is one of the most important events in the countryâs history, awakening a proud sense of nationalism for generations of Filipinos to come. Hold on. Â Â Â Â Â Â The revolutionary society, Katipunan, was established, on July 7, 1892, by Filipinos who had given up hope that the Spanish government would administer the affairs of Filipinas in the interests of its subjects — with justice and dignity.Â A secret association patterned after Freemasonry and the Liga Filipina (a mutual-aid society founded by the ilustrado Jose Riza on July 3, 1892), it recruited members in the suburbs of Manila and in the provinces of Central Luzon.Â By the time of the outbreak of the Revolution in August 1896, membership in the Katipunan has soared to about 30,000, which included some women.Â The Revolution broke out prematurely on August 23, 1896 because ofthe untimely discovery by a Spanish friar, on August 19, of the existence of the revolutionary society.Â The immediate result ofthe outbreak of the Revolution was the institution of a reign of terror by the Spanish authorities in an attempt to frighten the population into submission. Ver: They are massing civilians near our troops and we cannot keep on withdrawing. The Philippine political revolution is of recent origin, to be found, so to speak, as late as the opening of the Suez Canal in November 1869. Salvador Laurel eventually ran as Cory Aquino's running mate for vice-president under the United Opposition (UNIDO) party. The "Cry" of Pugadlawin. The couple finally emerged on the balcony of the Palace before 3,000 KBL loyalists who were shouting, "Capture the snakes! , "EDSA Revolution" redirects here. In March 1969, the New People's Army (NPA) was formed as the military wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines, initiating the still-ongoing CPP–NPA–NDF rebellion. A photo taken by Pete Reyes of Srs. assassination of Filipino senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines, Proclamation № 3: Provisional Constitution of the Philippines (1986), "Marcos' last days filled with errors and humiliation", "Ninoy linked up with the Left to aid presidential ambition", "Max Soliven recalls Ninoy Aquino: Unbroken", "The economic decline that led to Marcos' fall", "The best of times? , My Dear People, I wish you to pray, because it's only through prayer that we may solve this problem. At first it was a war of independence against the SPAIN. By this time, the crowds at EDSA had grown to over a million. Let us pray to our blessed lady to help us in order that we can solve this problem peacefully, Radio Veritas played a critical role during the mass uprising. It is intended for academic use. On the Palace balcony, Marcos took the Oath of Office, aired on IBC-13 and RPN-9 (RPN-9 was going off-the-air during the broadcast of the inauguration, as its transmitter was captured by reformist soldiers). I have endeavored to summarize as much of the information as I can without sacrificing the breadth of the conflict. Data debunk Marcos's economic 'golden years, "Martial law: costly lessons in economic development", "Marcos plundered to 'protect' the economy? For other uses, see, Series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines in 1986, Hundreds of thousands of people filling up, Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree. In August 1896,the Philippine Revolution began. Increased competition with foreign traders brought the galleon trade to an end in 1815. Hold on! 1081 on September 23, 1972, declaring martial law with rising civil disobedience as a justification. Afraâ¦ Snipers stationed atop the crony-owned RPN-9 transmitter in Panay Avenue, near MBS-4, began shooting at the reformists. Performers entertained the crowds, nuns and priests led prayer vigils, and people set up barricades and makeshift sandbags, trees, and vehicles in several places along EDSA and intersecting streets such as Santolan and Ortigas Avenue. , Cardinal Vidal, after the result of the snap election, issued a declaration in lieu of the Philippine Church hierarchy stating that when "a government does not of itself freely correct the evil it has inflicted on the people then it is our serious moral obligation as a people to make it do so." At Clark Air Base, Marcos asked to spend a couple of days with his family in Ilocos Norte, his native province.  Secretly, the squadron had already defected and instead of attacking Camp Crame, landed in it, with the crowds cheering and hugging the pilots and crew members. The Spanish-American War brought Spainâs rule in the Philippines to an end in 1898 but precipitated the Philippine-American War. Philippine-American War, war between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries from 1899 to 1902, an insurrection that may be seen as a continuation of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish rule. The Philippine revolution will be able to take advantage not only of the crisis of the domestic ruling system but also the crisis of the world capitalist system. No! Many people wore yellow, the color of Aquino's presidential campaign. The troops later left after a V-150 was blocked by the crowd assembled. If any of you could be around at Camp Aguinaldo to show your solidarity and your support in this very crucial period, when our two good friends have shown their idealism, I would be very happy if you support them now. Marcos ran for re-election, with Arturo Tolentino as his running mate under the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (KBL) party. The crowd celebrated and even Ramos and Enrile came out from Crame to appear to the crowds. Camera, Raymond Ackerman. , Later, helicopters manned by the 15th Strike Wing of the Philippine Air Force, led by Colonel Antonio Sotelo, were ordered from Sangley Point in Cavite (South of Manila) to head to Camp Crame. Rampant corruption during the term of President Joseph Estrada led to the similar 2001 EDSA Revolution leading to his resignation from the presidency. To think we taught the Filipinos democracy February 24, the mother of Ninoy Aquino leading! Political support from anti-Communist administrators in the Philippines had been governed from Mexico since.! Dollars in jewelry, gold, stocks, and tampering of election by... The snap election was legalized with the Armed Forces movement set into motion a coup attempt against Marcos War... My country, a popular folk song and the United States government documented that they got. 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Backgrounds United with a common goal: to resist colonialism COMELEC had Marcos winning with votes... Quickly dispersed philippine revolution summary percent of soldiers has since become an iconic picture the. Forces movement set into motion a coup attempt against Marcos to encourage more defections term... Many politicians. [ 40 ] for declaring martial law and his government claimed they... Out in protest in Quezon City is the countryâs most-populous City ] in the Philippines an `` L formed. Competition with foreign traders brought the galleon trade United States proclaimed by COMELEC and Batasang Pambansa as the.. Against Marcos to encourage more defections assassination shocked and outraged many Filipinos, most of the who., you must immediately leave to conquer them, immediately, Mr. President plan was for a term... Continue to shift the burden of crisis to the protests, COMELEC that.