Sólymos, P., S. M. Matsuoka, E. M. Bayne, S. R. Lele, P. Fontaine, S. G. Cumming, D. Stralberg, F. K. A. Schmiegelow, and S. J. Two other species of the genus Chordeiles occur in North America: Lesser Nighthawk, C. acutipennis, which breeds in southwestern U.S. and Mexico, and Antillean Nighthawk, C. gundlachii, which breeds on islands of the Caribbean Sea, and which was considered a subspecies of C. minor until 1982 (Guzy 2002). Nests are at risk from trampling by cattle, most commonly in areas with dairy cattle. 2013. 2011), roughly the size of American Robin (Turdus migratorius), but with longer, pointed wings, and a more slender and elongated build. Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Gatineau, Québec. 2017. 2015; Environment Canada 2016; Center for Conservation Biology 2017; Knight 2017). October 2016. Its long-distance migration and restricted breeding season, combined with the small clutch size, limit its annual productivity and potential rate of population recovery. The Condor 95:157–162. Geographical patterns in openland cover and hayfield mowing in the Upper Great Lakes region: implications for grassland bird conservation. October 26, 2020. Classification of Threats adopted from IUCN-CMP, Salafsky et al. The common nighthawk is sometimes called a "bull-b… Nightlife in the big city. Marra. Également disponible en français sous le titre Ếvaluation et Rapport de situation du COSEPAC sur L’engoulevent d’Amérique (Chordeiles minor) au Canada. 2006). The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. These birds exist on the planet at least 400.000 years. Guralnick, M.W. The female Common Nighthawk performs all incubation duties, but will leave the nest to feed. Nests can fail from effects of hot or cold temperature extremes, flooding, or predation (Brigham et al. comm. John Wiley and Sons, Toronto, Ontario. 2013. The scale and severity of this threat may be negligible overall, but local populations may be severely affected by large projects, such as the planned Site C project that will flood Common Nighthawk habitat along the North Peace River of British Columbia (Siddle 2010). 2011). Willis, and R.M. Also, competition with Glaucous-winged Gulls for rooftop nesting sites may have reduced the population. Denno, M.D. Harper, J.A. Weeber, R. - Senior Population Assessment Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Filion, A. Loss of habitat and potentially changes in food supply have both been identified as major threats to populations of this species. 2017). 2006), but presumably with negligible effects at the population level. Statistical Pocketbook: World Food and Agriculture. Recent diet studies suggest that it often forages on insects from terrestrial rather than wetland habitats in boreal areas during breeding (Knight et al. Common Nighthawks have been affected by a decrease in the abundance of insects and an increase in habitat loss and alteration. 9.3 Agricultural and forestry effluents (Unknown) 2016). 2001), continues on both the breeding and wintering ranges of Common Nighthawk (see Habitat Trends, above). Climate change also continues to increase the frequency and severity of temperature variation worldwide (Huber and Gulledge 2011). Other atlas projects only report trends qualitatively (i.e., without a numerical estimate). The timing of these periods is particularly important in this species, because its long-distance migration restricts it to a relatively short breeding season (Brigham et al. Forest Ecology and Management 230:151-161. Van Wilgenburg, S.L., E.M. Beck, B. Obermayer, T. Joyce, and B. Weddle. comm. It is extremely well-camouflaged by its mottled brown plumage when perched on the ground or horizontal surfaces. Sinclair, P.H. Master, S. O’Connor, and D. Wilkie. Antillean Nighthawk (Chordeiles gundlachii), The Birds of North America (P.G. Several of these threats are well-documented for some aerial insectivores, but evidence for Common Nighthawks is sparse and often anecdotal. Journal of Animal Ecology 83:729-739. eBird. In general, mining and quarrying pose little threat to this species. It is actually a member of the nightjar family. Morrissey, and K.A. Knight, unpubl. Common nighthawk is medium-sized bird that belongs to the nightjar family. This week we start a new series on the blog, a weekly highlighting of birds considered to be at risk in Canada. 1996; Corace et al. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature, Toronto, Ontario. The assigned overall threat impact is High-Low (see Appendix 1 for details), primarily due to the impacts of pesticides (in the category of other ecosystem modifications), although the impact of most of the threats noted below was categorized as Unknown or Negligible. Pruss, S. - Species Conservation Specialist, Natural Resources Branch, Parks Canada Agency, Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. Smith A.C., Hudson M.-A.R., Downes C.M., and Francis, C.M. Endangered, Vulnerable, and Threatened Species. Haché, S., pers. comm. 2014). Two airborne pollutants that prevail in some boreal habitats present potential threats to Common Nighthawk: mercury, which can have a variety of sub-lethal effects in birds, including reduced reproductive success, and acid rain, which might exacerbate the effects of mercury, and reduce the availability of aquatic insects that provide calcium needed by birds (Environment Canada 2016). Tingley, J. Otegui, J.C. Withey, S.C. Elmendorf, M.E. Breeding Bird Surveys start 30 minutes before sunrise and continue for 4-5 hours thereafter, suggesting that only observations at the first few survey stops would be likely to detect this species, given its crepuscular behaviour (Knight pers. 2010. Like other members of the nightjar family, its broad mouth is specialized for scooping insects in flight. Birds of the Kingston region. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10:305-313. 2011). Finke, and I. Kaplan. 2011; Paquette et al. 2001. 2003), southwestern Northwest Territories, throughout British Columbia (except Haida Gwaii and the adjacent outer Pacific coast), Alberta, and Saskatchewan. (Species at Risk Public Registry). Knight, E.C., pers. The area of habitat needed for breeding varies widely across studies. Long-term temporal trends in agri-environment and agricultural land use in Ontario, Canada: transformation, transition and significance. Environment and Climate Change Canada. This suggests that the pattern of pronounced long-term decline has been lessening in recent years. The Birdlife of Florida. Atlassers make special efforts to search all habitats at all times of day, and thus gather thorough information on a species’ distribution. Stewart, R.L.M., K.A. Partners in Flight, however, lists it among the Common Birds in Steep Decline, which are species estimated to have lost at least 50% of their population since 1970 (Rosenberg et al. 2014. McKnight, J. Coady, G. 2007. Deciphering the diversity and history of New World nightjars (Aves: Caprimulgidae) using molecular phylogenetics. Its breeding distribution also includes the western Sierra Madre and Gulf Coast of Mexico, and extends discontinuously south through Central America. Peters. Hot weather can overheat nighthawk chicks, whereas cold snaps challenge the species’ tight energy budget (see Physiology and Adaptability, above) and reduce the availability of flying insects (Brigham et al. Nonetheless, changes in temperature regimes and temperature extremes may be detrimental. - Crown Forests & Lands Policy Branch, Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Peterborough, Ontario. Benton, T.G., D.M. 2014. 2011. 2014. Nests are typically in open sites with dry, well-drained substrates that will not overheat and that have shade nearby for young to shelter from the sun and predators (Ng 2009; Lohnes 2010; Brigham et al. Other factors that may have contributed to the declines observed in certain regions include habitat loss and modification, parti… Nighthawks are closely related to owls, with similarities in DNA and many morphological ­structures as well as plumage. Although Common Nighthawks often avoid natural predators, increases in American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) numbers have been related to increased predation on Common Nighthawk in at least one urban study (Latta and Latta 2015), and increases in gulls (Larus spp.) Nesting success rates ranged from 43% to 93%, and predation (by unknown sources, but presumably several predator species) was the main cause of nesting failure (Kantrud and Higgins 1992; Perkins and Vickery 2007; Allen and Peters 2012; E.C. 2015. 2018). Neonicotinoid pesticides, which have been used increasingly since the 1990s, are known to cause declines in insect populations in the agricultural lands where they are applied, and in associated aquatic environments (Goulson 2014). comm. 2001; McLachlan 2007; Ng 2009). Submitted. Pipas, J.C. Luchsinger, J.E. - Head, Terrestrial and Marine Unit, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Sackville, New Brunswick. The ecological impacts of nighttime light pollution: a mechanistic appraisal. Tuleya, J.J. Sirutis, G.A. submitted ). Although nighthawks migrate singly in the spring, in the fall migrating flocks of a few to thousands of birds pass over particular sites (COSEWIC 2007; Brigham et al. Total number of mature individuals exceeds thresholds. Ng, J.W., E.C. September 2017. Also, while many nightjars are able to go into torpor (a hibernation-like state of reduced metabolism) to survive periods of scarce food or cold weather, Common Nighthawks rarely do so (Firman et al. Although often reported as not occurring in Nunavut (e.g., Environment Canada 2016), there are nesting records of this species on Nunavut islands in James Bay, including Charlton and Akimiski Islands (eBird 2016; Richards pers. [accessed November 2017]. - Scientific and GIS Project Officer, COSEWIC Science Support, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Gatineau, Québec. 2010. These effects are worse when combined with precipitation impacts.Extremes of precipitation affect the abundance of flying insects, and have occurred more frequently in recent years across wide portions of the range of Common Nighthawk (Haile 2000; Boulton and Lake 2008). yes, their habitats are being destroyed, and they are fastly dying out. Wilsn, S. - Research Scientist, Wildlife Research Division, Wildlife and Landscape Science Directorate, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 2011). Common Nighthawk breeds in a wide variety of habitats that provide open areas for foraging in flight, and bare ground with nearby shade, for nesting. PhD Candidate, Department of Biology, Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. Their sharp, electric peent call is often the first clue they’re overhead. Severe recent decrease of adult body mass in a declining insectivorous bird population. Avian Conservation and Ecology 11(1):8. New analyses of trends from eBird records are now available (Walker and Taylor 2017), to complement those from BBS and the Boreal Avian Modelling program (Haché et al. 2014). Climate change and extreme weather (Unknown). [accessed October 2016]. The Birds of Manitoba. Blight, L. - Senior Scientist, Procellaria Research and Consulting, Victoria, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Do free-ranging Common Nighthawks enter torpor? Scientific Reports 7:1902. 2016). Southeastern Naturalist 6:283-292. Variation in Canadian birds has not been studied, and the distribution of each subspecies is not thoroughly understood. However, these areas comprise a relatively small proportion of the species’ breeding range in Canada. 2017; Weeber et al. Large-scale farms use more and more pesticides to rid their crops of insects for which makes up the Common Nighthawk’s diet. A regional threat of unknown severity is the reforestation of areas originally cleared for agriculture, following the cessation of farming. - Bird Conservation Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Whitehorse, Yukon. Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds. Wilson, S., pers. Declines of aerial insectivores in North America follow a geographic gradient. Elliot. International Conference on Building Envelope Systems and Technology 2007:275e86. Langevelde, F., M. Braamburg‐Annegarn, M.E. Gross, E. - Species at Risk Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Delta, British Columbia. WildResearch Nightjar Survey 2016 Annual Report. PloS one 12(10), e0185809. There is considerable regional variation among these threats (Michel et al. Supplement to Canadian Wildlife Service (Ontario) comments on draft 6-month interim status report on Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor): Summary of 2012 CWS-Ontario acoustic recorder surveys in boreal burns of NW Ontario with interpretations for Common Nighthawk. 1998. 2011). 2017. Pp. It may winter throughout the northeastern half of South America (Figure 1), but most winter records come from the South American Lowlands, specifically eastern Peru, eastern Ecuador, and southern Brazil, south to central Peru, northeastern Uruguay and northeastern Argentina (Brigham et al. Environment Canada's Prairie and Northern Habitat Monitoring Program Phase II: Recent trends in the Prairie Habitat Joint Venture. xi + 50 pp. Smith, A.R. 2017. Haché, S. - Landbird Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. 2017), although well-established for birds in other systems (e.g., Hipfner 2008). Knight, A.L. Sutherland, D. Natural Heritage Information Centre, Science and Research Branch, Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, Peterborough, Ontario. 2016. Biodiversity knowledge, research scope and priority areas: an assessment for Latin America and the Caribbean. Atlas of Saskatchewan Birds. Analysis of eBird records suggests that the population may have stabilized in recent years, and the species appears to be quite abundant in suitable boreal habitats. Landscape Ecology 32:343-359. Canadian Wildlife Service, Technical Report Series No. The following assessment concentrates on the range in Canada, but considers threats on migration and on the wintering grounds where data exist and where it is known or strongly suspected that migrants or overwintering birds are of Canadian origin. Fisher, R.J., Q.E. The Journal of Wildlife Management 78:763-771. Influence of grazing treatments on nongame birds and vegetation structure in south central North Dakota. Noise from operating mines may put stress individuals nesting nearby, but this is unlikely to be unlikely to be a population-level concern. Environment Canada, Ottawa. Camargo, and M. Sitkowski. During the day they’re harder to spot due to their efficient camouflage that allows them to blend in easily when they roost in trees or on the ground. 22, Saskatchewan Natural History Society (Nature Saskatchewan), Regina, Saskatchewan. Jobin, B., J.L. The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assesses the national status of wild species, subspecies, varieties, or other designatable units that are considered to be at risk in Canada. 2.1 and 2.3 Agricultural (non-timber) crops, livestock farming and ranching (Negligible) Schaffer, F. - Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Québec, Québec. ), Proceedings of the 10th Wildlife Damage Management Conference. Estimation of bird-vehicle collision mortality on U.S. roads. Brigham, and E.M. Bayne. 2004). Krebs, E. - Research Manager - Western Canada, Wildlife Research Division, Wildlife and Landscape Science Directorate, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Delta, British Columbia. 1996). in preparation). Comments to A.G. Horn on the first draft of this report. 2016. Joly, J.C. Castillas, and F. Cejas. The common nighthawk is not an endangered species. When compared to other landbird species, Common Nighthawk has among the lowest reported collision rates with vehicles, buildings, communication towers, and wind turbines (Bishop and Brogan 2013; Longcore et al. Center for Conservation Biology. Donald, P.F., R.E. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6: 14. 2004. 2016. eBird: An online database of bird distribution and abundance [web application]. They adapted to urbanization by making use of flat, gravel-covered rooftops as nest sites. - Ecosystem Management Ecologist, Endangered Species and Biodiversity Section, Wildlife Division, Department of Environment and Conservation, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador. Stable isotopes from museum specimens may provide evidence of long-term change in the trophic ecology of a migratory aerial insectivore. In fall, they depart on southbound migration between mid-August and mid-September (Weir 1989; Manitoba Avian Research Committee 2003; COSEWIC 2007). 2011), but is presumed to be one year. In addition to the roadside BBS data, BAM includes many point counts that are conducted well away from roads, so its results may be less affected by roadside biases in detection of, or occupancy by, Common Nighthawk (Haché et al. Wotton, G.J. However, they do provide a cautionary indication that the population has undergone a marked decline in the past that may still be continuing though at a lower rate. Huber, D.G., and J. Gulledge. Fletcher, C.K.R. Buglife – The Invertebrate Conservation Trust. Thanks also to the thousands of volunteers who participated in or served as coordinators for the Breeding Bird Survey and Canadian breeding bird atlases over the years. 2013; Langevelde et al. Stattersfield, C. Hilton-Taylor, R. Neugarten, S.H.M. 2016). Court, G. - Provincial Wildlife Status Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Policy Division, Alberta Department of Environment and Parks, Edmonton, Alberta. Grice, D.G. When at rest, its plumage is cryptically mottled brownish-grey and black like other nightjars, although its distinctive white wing bar may be visible on the folded wing. Garner, and I.M. Males defend territories from as small as 1.5 ha in northeastern Alberta (Knight pers. Hobson, K.A., E.M. Bayne, and S.L. Pesticides may have reduced the amount of prey available. In Canadian National Parks where the species occurs (including at least 20 in which it breeds), the birds, their nests, and their habitats are protected under the National Parks Act. Than agricultural intensification assessing the relative use of clearcuts, burned stands, and Jongejans... 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